A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) is a doctoral research degree that is particularly common in the English-speaking world and awarded as the highest level of qualification after the completion of a PhD course. A PhD program could be very diverse and feature many different components and stages that move through the three years of a typical full-time PhD course. Those include a literature review and collection of results that are usually carried out in the first year of studies, followed by the structuring of a thesis in the second year, and concluding with the writing up phase that takes place in the final year of the program along with the oral defence of the thesis. Other components of a typical PhD program will also involve individual research, scientific publications in scientific journals, active and passive participation in scientific conferences and/or workshops. As a research-oriented degree, a PhD study course is ideal for those students who want to pick up additional skills and experience and pursue career in academic research.